Bromo-A10
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by Irsam Soetarto

INTRODUCTION 

Indonesia country is part of continuous active “Ring of Fire”. Sometimes called “Circum Pacific Belt”, Ring of Fire is a term refer to the series active volcanoes that goes around Pacific ocean (from New Zealand, through Indonesia, up to Japan, bend to North America, down to middle America continent, and ended up somewhere in Argentina). In total it has about 450 volcanoes, and noted most volcanoes than any other part of the world.

In Indonesia itself there are about 150 volcanoes spread out in about 17.000 big and small island. While most of the active volcanoes lie on the Java island, located in the southern middle of Indonesia. Just about the size of Texas state in USA or UK in Europe, Java island has about 40 mountains, in which half of them are active, and 7 to the half under serious surveillance.

Although in one side, those mountains volcanoes are frightening and deadly when erupting, causing damages to the villages, agriculture, and buildings nearby and also pushing people living in exile for a while, but in the next long run creating a great fertile soil through rich nutrient minerals spout from its deep inside. In turn making the living of surrounding people with great joy of surplus agriculture, continuing the life (even sometimes better one), creating a civilization, and building more monuments through its abundance boulders or rocks.

The surrounding people has lived living with the rhythm of…

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