by Angie Sillonis


by Martin Zurmuhle


SHOULD KNOW by Andre Karimloo


by Thomas Jerger


Victoria Krundysheva


Andrei Duman


by Vishpala Kadam


by Indu Mohan

More articles coming soon


EL PARAGUAS ROJO / ALBERTO DEL CAMPO – Congratulations on this placement and your Sunwayfoto prize


Moshe Levis

Moshe Levis

Photographer / Writer / Founder & CEO

It’s all about the beauty of our world. I capture photos of whatever attracts me and inspires me. I shoot portraits, wildlife, macro, landscapes and many personal and original projects.

We started NOTINDOOR in December of 2015 and we’ll keep making it better!

Andre Karimloo

Andre Karimloo

Photographer / Writer / Staff

I’m Andre Karimloo, writer and photographer here at NOTINDOOR Magazine.

I was born and raised in the city of South Pasadena. A small, quiet suburb bordering the northeast end of Los Angeles. From there, I attended Cal Poly Pomona, where I studied Journalism and spent time writing for the school newspaper.

Indu Mohan

Indu Mohan

Photographer / Writer

Though I express myself through painting and writing, photography is the most comfortable medium for me. I am drawn to anything under the sun and enjoy the thought process behind creating each image.

Victoria Krundysheva

Victoria Krundysheva


I live as expat turned local in India.
I don’t brag, but main teri maa se zyada Hindustani hoon. If you are shifting to India, want to travel here or work, know about cultural adaptation and best things to enjoy – ask me. I do Fine Art Photography.

I write. I brand and design. I eat. I art. I travel. A lot. Far, close by. In India, outside.

Vishpala Kadam

Vishpala Kadam

Photographer / Writer

I am a photographer and travel blogger who loves to roam around, take pictures, write travel blogs and show the world through my lens – the reason for my portfolio ‘Speaking Lens’.
Thomas Jerger

Thomas Jerger

Photographer / Writer

I have received a lot of good feedback since I joined 500px a year ago, when I returned to photography… Mostly from votes or a lack of votes.

Andrei Duman

Andrei Duman


A travel, landscape and aerial photographer based in LA, California. He was born in Bucharest, Romania in 1982 and raised and educated in England, where he received a Masters of Science, Finance and Investment from the University of York in 2005. Now settled in Los Angeles, where he currently lives with his wife, Susan.
Arwen Dyer

Arwen Dyer

Photographer / Writer

Arwen Dyer is a photographer and artist from Hobart, Tasmania. Her love of landscape and astronomical photogra- phy grew from her passion for being in nature. She has a particular interest in macro and night photography: both illu- minate worlds that we so o en don’t stop to appreciate.

Angie Sillonis

Angie Sillonis

Photographer / Writer

Angie Sillonis is a public relations professional and retired homecoming queen who lives on a farm in Eastern Oregon with her husband.

Martin Zurmuhle

Martin Zurmuhle

Photographer / Writer

Martin Zurmühle was born and raised in Lucerne, Switzerland. He has been shooting for 40 years in di erent elds: nature, landscape, architecture and travel photography.




Sigma 500mm f/4 DG OS HSM Sports Lens for Sigma SA


Sony 500mm f/4.0 G Telephoto Prime Lens


Focal Length
Camera Mount Type
Format Compatibility
Angle of View
Minimum Focus Distance
Maximum Reproduction Ratio
Diaphragm Blades


Image Stabilization
Tripod Collar


Filter Thread
Dimensions (DxL)

Maximum: f/4, Minimum: f/32
Sigma SA
35mm Film / Full Frame Digital Sensor

11.48” (3.5 cm)
9, Rounded
Yes Fixed – rotating
Drop-in: 46 mm
Approx. 5.70 x 14.97” (144.8 x 380.3 mm)
7.30 lb (3.31 kg)


Focal Length
Camera Mount Type
Format Compatibility
Minimum Focus Distance
Diaphragm Blades


Image Stabilization
Tripod Collar


Filter Thread
Dimensions (DxL)

500mm – Comparable APS-C Focal Length: 750 mm
Maximum: f/4 Minimum: f/32
Sony Alpha, Minolta AF
35mm Film / Full-Frame Digital Sensor – DSLR (APS-C Sensor)
13.12’ (4.0 m)
Not specified by manufacturer
Rear:42 mm
Approx. 5.51 x 14.47” (14 x 36.75 cm)
7.63 lb (3.46 kg)


This large lens is designed to be used in some of the most trying conditions and is made from a durable and lightweight magnesium alloy. It is protected from dust and water and uses a brass bayonet mount. Filter users will appreciate a 46mm drop-in filter system while a rotating tripod collar is available for using the lens on a tripod or monopod. Additionally, the 500mm lens is fully compatible with Sigma’s Global Vision teleconverter for getting an extended reach.


The 500mm f/4.0 G Telephoto Prime Lens from Sony is a very long telephoto lens with a fast f/4.0 aperture that uses three ED (Extra-low Dispersion) glass elements and Nano AR lens coatings to maintain excellent contrast, and reduce internal reflections.
It is compatible with the Sony SteadyShot in-camera image stabilization system, and it has a Super Sonic Wave Motor (SSM) with a drive circuit four times as fast as previous versions. The autofocus is fast and quiet. When used with a compatible APS-C format DSLR, the equivalent focal length of this lens is an outstanding 750mm.

This lens does its part to fight the elements with interlocking weather-resistant seals in and around the focusing ring and other vulnerable points to protect against moisture, dust and moisture.


Viktoria Krundysheva


photo by Vishpala Kadam


by Vishpala Kadam.

‘When in doubt, just escape to Alaska…!’ – somebody told me jokingly few years back. I realized how true it is when I got back from my first Alaskan winter experience last year. Alas- kan winter experience is way far beyond Northern Lights aka Aurora Borealis and snow covered remote wilderness but I am going to focus on only these two things in this story.

Up in the north (high latitude 60o or more) winter sky is truly magical. It changes color from deep blue of day to vibrant orange/ red of sunset to mystical purple blue of twilight and miraculous green, blue, purple, pink & sometimes red of northern lights… It is every photographers delight. I know, I know, I oversimplified it. Having this kind of perfect colorful experience in matter of few days is partly matter of luck but I would give more credit to perfect planning that goes in it.

I want to get into little more details regarding planning for northern lights. Aurora season typically runs from November to mid-April. University of Alaska, Fairbanks does a very good job of predicting strength of northern lights for a given night from a certain location. Check this out – http://www.gi.alas- ka.edu/AuroraForecast/Alaska Prediction is available approx- imately a month in advance and it is pretty accurate. But the tricky part is, predicting the weather! If night is cloudy or snow storm is going on, then no matter what is the strength of northern lights, you simply won’t see it. There is no single place/app to get accurate weather forecast 30 days in advance. Start at weather channel and check all the available informa- tion for weather forecast and take your chances!

From photography perspective, as always leave no gear at home – carry your camera body, lenses (wide angle, fisheye, and 50 mm) tripod etc. Keep extra batteries. In subzero tem- perature, they tend to drain quickly. Good, sturdy tripod and a DSLR that can keep noise low at ISO 1600+ is must have, to get good photos of northern lights. Last but not the least, dress in layers and stay warm. Protecting yourself is the most important thing!

Master your gear before you reach the shooting place. Strug- gling with camera settings in cold night is certainly not a good idea. Choose a shooting spot as per your personal test and your ability to brave the weather! I am very much fascinated by Alaskan log cabins so I chose it as my foreground. I kept shooting for about an hour till I got the composition I want- ed. Next day, light was coming out from horizon making a narrow channel rather than spreading wide at horizon. That’s when I decided to compose with spruce trees in foreground to make ‘Fuming Spruce’ shot.

Now because Aurora Borealis is rare and not easily seen from lower latitude doesn’t mean snow covered Alaskan winter wonderland is less mind blowing. Infinite landscape of snow covered trees and a lonely road cutting through it, is scary but beautiful in its own way. It is quite interesting to see different shapes of snow covered trees. These happy little and big trees keep patiently waiting for spring, how inspirational.

Partially cloudy day is perfect to shoot snow covered landscape during the day. White snow on ground and on trees, blue sky and white clouds make incredible picture. Remember to dial up exposure compensation to get good white color of snow. Try + 1 or +2 setting. If it is kept at zero, you might end up with dull looking snow.

Getting up early before sunrise or waiting for sunset in cold evening could be sometimes pretty rewarding. When condi- tions are right, Alaskan winter sky displays deep & vibrant colors. Snow covered landscape gives ample opportunities to get foreground in your photo. Uneven ground when covered with snow makes a perfect foreground.

I didn’t explore night photography in Alaska besides northern lights. It would be too cool to see star trails with snow covered trees in foreground. Blend of Aurora and start trails would make killer photo for sure. It certainly will require lot of plan- ning and patience to wait in cold for whole night to get star trails, but I am sure it will be all worth it. I am going to try these ideas some day!


by Arwen Dyer.

A must-visit for travelers is the island state of Tasmania, located southeast of the Australian mainland. Similar in size to Iceland, Tasmania has unique natural beauty, significant historical narratives and a vibrant culture. While agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing have long been the traditional industries; these days Tasmania attracts high numbers of tourists keen to savour the unsurpassed wilderness, vibrant arts and crafts, fresh local produce and numerous music festivals.

For nature photographers, Tasmania is considered one of the world’s prime destinations. Here lies some of the planet’s last undisturbed wilderness areas, rare distinctive vegetation and unique wildlife. From top-to-bottom, East-to-West and everywhere in between, Tasmania is an island with much to tempt the avid photographer: dramatic coastlines, ragged mountain ranges, ancient rainforests, roaring waterfalls, wild rivers, and, magnificent night skies. Yet such wonders have an inherent fragility and a vulnerability to human exploits that calls for awareness and contemplation as you walk these shores.

Along the East Coast

One of the joys of exploring an island is that you have the entire circumference at your feet. Striking features along Tasmania’s coastline puts them first on many travel itineraries. On the East Coast is the Bay of Fires and Freycinet National Park, areas renowned for granite boulders painted red with lichen and gentle, aqua blue waters. Freycinet boasts the Hazards: a rocky mountain range with views over magnificent Wineglass Bay where dolphins and whales are often seen. If you venture further north, Flinders Island (accessible by small plane or boat,) shares these incredible rocks and crystal clear seas, plus has a numerous array of native animals, including wombats, echidnas, wallabies and large birds of prey. Wildlife also abounds further south in Maria Island National Park, a carless sanctuary for endangered fauna including the Tasmanian Devil. The island’s Painted Cliffs are a marbling of colours beautifully sculptured by the sea. Further south towards the capital Hobart is the Tasman Peninsular with its incredible towering cliffs, stone arches and the famous Tessellated Pavement, not to mention the popular historic convict penitentiary at Port Arthur. With so much at your feet, you will hardly put your camera down.

Journey to the West

Equally remarkable to the East is Tasmania’s West Coast: the Tarkine. Treasured by the Tasmanian Aboriginal community whose ancestors walked here for thousands of years, the Tarkine features sacred sites and cultural artifacts in addition to its dramatic rock forms and vast sand dunes. This coastline is at the centre of an ongoing fight by local Aboriginal people and conservation groups to protect it from a State Government determined to open the area to destructive recreational four-wheel driving. In fact, the entire 450,000 hectares that make up the Tarkine region is the focus of a collaborative campaign to secure protection from logging, mining,

insensitive development, damaging recreation and the effects of global warming. The Tarkine has some one of the world’s last remaining intact temperate rainforests, as well as mountain ranges, button grass plains and delicate river systems, all which are at risk from human impacts. Wildlife here is also threatened: Wedge Tailed Eagles, Giant Freshwater Crayfish and Tasmanian Devils are just some of the unique threatened species that require immediate protection. Despite the remoteness of the Tarkine (a six hour drive from Hobart) most roads are accessible to two-wheel drives and there are various camping and accommodation options. Expect a visual feast: you will be spoilt for sublime photographic material.

Everywhere in between

Tasmania’s mountains are reputedly picturesque, rugged and plentiful. Some of the most spectacular of these are within the Cradle Mountain – Lake St Clair National Park located in the central north of the State. This region forms part of the vast World Heritage Area that extends to the Southwest Coast, a faraway place only accessible by water, air or on foot. Cradle Mountain, by contrast, attracts thousands of visitors every year. Most dwell at Dove Lake car park, gazing up at the unusually shaped peak. Some will stroll a short way around the lake. Walk further afield and you will discover serenity amidst the little tarns, twisted trees and lofty

views. Mountain weather is often cold and can change quickly, so ensure you plan safely before setting out. Snow falls anytime of year in Tasmania, gifting you with a dazzling canvas to work from.

Delicate Plant Life

The Cradle Mountain – Lake St Clair National Park and nearby alpine areas harbour some the most fragile and unique vegetation in Tasmania. Most notable is the nothofagus gunnii, a native deciduous beech that turns spectacularly orange and red in autumn, and pencil pines, which are thousands of years old. Such plant life is at risk of extinction due to wildfire, a risk increasing with climate change, as demonstrated by the devastating fires of January, 2016. Those fires damaged a large part of the alpine landscape adjacent to the Cradle Mountain area, as well as rainforests and button grass plains in the nearby Tarkine region.

And the Sky Above

The lack of pollution and frequent clear night skies means Tasmanians are blessed with opportunities to see auroras, the Milky Way, the moon and other astrological phenomena. The island state is one of the best locations to view the aurora australis because of its southern location and orientation to the South Pole. While there are ways to predict an aurora, there are many factors that make viewing and photographing them a rare event. In addition to the weather being favourable, it is worth considering that there are more nighttime hours in winter, auroras are more common around the equinox (mid-March and mid-September), solar activity has an eleven year cycle (every eleven years there are more auroras; we are not currently at a maximum) and, excessive moonlight will drown out anything but a massive auroral display. But, keep your hopes up and make sure you find a safe spot facing south away from the city lights.

Worth Protecting

If you are planning a trip to Australia or you live on the mainland, including Tasmania’s scenic wilderness in your travel plans is essential. Your experiences and photographs will bring joy for years to come. Just make sure, like in every wild place, that you treat Tasmania’s fragile natural environment with care and responsibility, and please don’t be afraid to tell the world how much it needs protecting.

photography: Arwen Dyer


photo by Tudoble Photography


by Angie Sillonis

If you’re planning on traveling to Europe, you can’t go wrong with Turkish Air. at is, un- less you’re taking a red-eye, with any expecta- tion of sleep. If that’s the case, try a di erent airline. Other than ight attendants being very attentive from our 12:30 a.m. takeo un- til they determined it was time for lights-out at 4:30, with two rounds of co ee, breakfast, two snacks and warm washcloths in between, it was a lovely ight. e layover in Istanbul Airport was less lovely, because there was a small area into which travelers had been scrunched – planes landed, buses picked up passengers and dropped them in the equiva- lent of a cattle holding area, to wait for a bus to take them to their connecting ight. Once I realized there was an entire (empty) terminal upstairs, the experience became much more enjoyable. I do not, however, advise eating the food at the airport kiosks.

A er 24 hours of travel, including the layover, I arrived at Milan’s Malpensa Airport, and took a taxi to the apartment I had rented on Air BnB. Word of advice: try to get informa- tion from the renter about the distance from the airport to the apartment, and whether there is public transportation nearby. My renter did not provide much information, so imagine my surprise when I was asked to pay the taxi driver 150 Euro for the long ride. Gasp.

I’ve heard horror stories about Air BnB, but this experience was great. Had a little trou- ble nding my apartment in the complex, but once I did, it was gorgeous! It looked like someplace one would want to entertain and impress guests. Fantastic, a ordable, and right on a very happening street. Naturally, I only used the apartment for sleeping, so it was wasted on me. In the morning, I walked around the neighborhood a bit, and when lunchtime rolled around, I started looking for someplace to eat. Unfortunately, many stores and estaurants closed at noon. I had heard of “pausa,” which is the Italian version of “siesta,” which begins a little before noon and ends whenever they feel like reopening their busi- nesses. Sometimes 4 or 5 p.m., and sometimes 7 or 8.

If you want to shop or have a speci c location you’d like to go to, schedule it in the morning. If you try to get there in the a ernoon, you may be disappointed. I had been told pausa wasn’t as prevalent in the larger cities, but I saw it o en in Milan. I had not scheduled any tours during my two days in Milan, so spent those two days wandering around and trying to get the lay of the land.

I happened upon a wedding setting up outside a beautiful church, and joined the mass of tourists who wandered in to take photos. I’ve seen overly expensive weddings in the United States, but this one put those to shame. ey had even rented a Hummer limo for the bride to sit in and stay cool while the wedding party set up and made its way into the church. She did not get out of the limo until the entire party was at the altar.

As I le the church, I noticed an impromptu “sidewalk sale” happening just up the street, and wandered down to where many vendors were setting up tables with antiques, cra s, art and other interesting items. You’ve all seen pictures of Italy, but this was the quintessential cobblestone street, buildings close together, blooming owers, picture we have in our mind when we think of visiting Europe. It was a lovely diver- sion, and a nice welcome to the country.

While I was there, Milan was hosting Expo, the World’s Fair, and I thought I’d go see it. e trains had other ideas, however. In short, I saw a lot of the city, but none of Expo. Which brings us to another topic: the train system.

Italy is very proud of its rail system, which runs nearly right on time. However, the morning I needed to catch a train to Florence, the rail system was experiencing technical issues because of an overnight power outage. Lesson: Don’t be afraid to ask for help. Lesson 2: Get a second opinion. Once at the train station, I purchased a ticket to Florence, but I could not nd which track the train was leaving from. e normally very e cient communication system was inoperable, so none of the tracks’ readouts were operational. A kind man looked on his app, and showed me to a track, where another very kind woman did the same, and made sure I got on the appropriate train. She got on with me, and helped with my luggage, since I needed to change trains at another station. At the next station, she got me to the correct track (she thought), and had to get to her train, or she’d be late for work. At that point, I asked another person if this was the train to Florence, and he said it was. I got on the train, found a place for my luggage, and sat down. en, I noticed the train’s reader board was working, and it said the train was express to Rome. It went right past Florence! I started to get o the train, but was blocked by a woman and her child. I let them past me, and then the train started up. I settled in for an unplanned trip to Rome.

About two hours into the three-hour trip, a train employ- ee came to check my ticket and informed me I was on the wrong train (in English. Common mistake by Americans, I’m guessing). She sold me a ticket from Rome to Florence, and assured me she would not charge me for the train I was currently riding. Unfortunately, the train to Florence had no seats le , so I got a “standing room” ticket, which meant if there was an empty seat, I was welcome to it, otherwise, I was to stand, sit in the aisle, and somehow make myself unobtrusive to the other passengers making their way to the restrooms. Somehow, I made it to Florence at the time I had previously scheduled to meet my group.

Our group spent two nights at the Athenaeum Hotel, which was lovely. Very nice accommodations in a nice area of town – easily walking distance to shopping, museums and the famous Duomo. In addition, the restaurant serves a to-die-for Fiorentino – Florentine steak, which their waiters masterfully paired with a lovely red wine. In Florence, we enjoyed an afternoon at the Ufizi Museum, a walking tour, Dante’s home and church, the Duomo, plus ventured inside some tall buildings for better sky-scape photography opportunities.

We even managed to get into some stores to help the local economy, and bring home items made from famous Florentine leather.

Our group met to catch our bus to Assissi, which, in true Florentine fashion, was late. A er a few phone calls, it became clear that the bus company thought we had reserved the bus for the following day, so a second bus company was contacted, and immediately, a bus arrived to take us on. Mid-trip, our guide mentioned to the driver that we were going to Assissi, and he said no, he had been told to take us to Cagli. e detour had not been con rmed with the driver! He called his boss, who agreed to send a third bus to pick us up. We were probably 10 miles from Assissi when our bus pulled over to the side of the road, and unceremoniously, we were sent to gather our luggage, and stand outside, with no shade, in the hot, humid summer day, to wait for a third bus. Luckily, the third bus arrived a er about 10 minutes, so our su ering was short. We proceeded to Assissi without additional fanfare. A quick walking tour through Assissi

showed us several famous haunts of St. Frances. His childhood home, the prison where his father kept him, and the Duomo (cathedral) which was built in his honor. From there, we traveled to Cagli, a town of about 10,000 in the Apennine Mountains, for our two week experience in cultural immersion.
showed us several famous haunts of St. Frances. His childhood home, the prison where his father kept him, and the Duomo (cathedral) which was built in his honor. From there, we traveled to Cagli, a town of about 10,000 in the Apennine Mountains, for our two week experience in cultural immersion.

Getting to know the people and rhythms of Cagli takes more than two weeks. Our group was kept busy in the mornings, then set free at noon, right a er all the grocery stores and restaurants shut down for the day. Luckily, I had brought granola bars with me from the U.S., and those were my lunch for most of the visit. A ernoons in the piazza, however, gave us a great opportunity for people-watching, photography, writing, talking to locals, and drinking as much wine as we could hold (hint: if you get an opportunity to try a “spritz,” I recommend it for the experience alone. Not my favorite beverage, but fun to try, nonetheless).

Our group enjoyed day trips to Urbino, where we were not able to tour the art museum, because it closed for pausa, and to Rome. Four of us walked to all the main sites of Rome in six hours, and only caught our bus back to Cagli because it was running late. A short bus ride took some members of our group to the beach town of Fano, on the Adriatic Sea, while others preferred to stay in Cagli and cool o in the local river.

When our two weeks ended, I caught the (correct) train back to Milan, where I stayed in a di erent Air BnB apartment, which was quite nice, and easy walking distance to public transportation. I took a guided tour of La Scala, the gorgeous, historical theater, the Galleria, an upscale shopping mall, the Duomo (Cathedral of Mary of the Nativity), which funded its renovation by o ering people the opportunity to “sponsor” one of the Duomo’s many gargoyles, as one sponsors a starving child in Africa. The fundraiser was quite successful.

Last stop on the tour was the Church of Santa Maria de Novella del Gracie (the Church of St. Mary of Grace), inside which is the fresco e Last Supper, painted by Leonardo DaVinci. The tour bus dropped us back where we started, which happened to be a couple blocks from Castello Sforzesco (Sforzi Castle), which was my next stop. I was impressed by how well-dressed the people of Italy were. Men in suits or jackets, women in skirts and heels – no shorts or flip-flops to be seen. It was a beautiful country, and with the exception of the “selfie stick” sales teams, most of the people quite pleasant.

When one thinks of Italy, one generally thinks of pasta and pizza, and I ate a LOT of those, but don’t be afraid to go outside of the norm. The steaks were wonderful, and at a group dinner at Castello de Frontone, our group was served a variety of meats, each better than the last, along with staples like pasta. Two members of our group very much enjoyed the horse steaks, and pigeon is o en a menu item. I ordered one of our Italian guests some water, and he responded, “I’m not sick.” Italians might add frizzante (sparkling water) to their wine, to give it bubbles, but they have no interest in drinking water alone.

Someday, when I have unlimited time and budget, I plan to go back to Italy, to explore the places I was not able to see on this trip. For anyone considering a trip to Italy, I recommend seeing some of the major sights, but also spending time in the smaller towns, which don’t see many tourists, so you’ll get a feel for what life in the country is really like. Don’t forget to carry your English to Italian Dictionary and phrasebook. You’re going to need them.


photo by Yulia Starostina

or YOU

by Indu Mohan

“What could be more simple and more com- plex, more obvious and more profound than a portrait” – Charles Baudelaire

Portrait photography is an art of imaging single or group of people; which can be realistic, hyper realistic or even surrealistic. Honestly I am scared of capturing portraits. Unlike a landscape or product photography, here subject is alive. When I plan for any type of portraiture, beauty shot or abstract, countless questions come up. Will the person follow my in- structions? Will he/she like the image etc? All these leads to a common point; what should be the purpose of portraits?

You may be engaged in high end fashion field like Mario Testino or you may be involved with marginal peoples like Diane Arbus. The purpose is more than just beautification; it’s about revealing the identity of a person. The most renowned portraits are the one which captured emotions and successfully conveyed to viewers.

Yes, there are two important aspects… finding the identity of your subject and conveying effectively to viewers. The first part solely depends on ‘You’ and in the later part your technical knowledge also intervenes. A good portrait photographer should know about lighting, composition and equipments. This helps to keep your sessions shorter. The attention span of most of the subjects may not be longer; especially in case of children. If a person be opted your studio, try suitable lighting, angles or post processing to make a signature portrait.

How will you know what is suitable for a particular individual? Here comes the importance of first aspect. Portraits depend on the impression/feeling created by the subject on the photographer. Being a more sensitive person aid you to sense beauty, flaws, emotions and state of others.

If you are at outdoors, look for faces with a story in it. Certain portraits become soulful when it is read along with their environment. Once we were into trekking and forest guard of that area was with us. Among many photos of the guard I had captured, i liked the above given one. I found it more meaningful because it shows his working atmosphere. You can clearly make out the marks on the tree which were created by wild tuskers.

Portraits are real challenges to photographers. Let me adopt Annie Leibovitz’s words, “a portrait is really just a moment with somebody”. I am in the process of learning to be with my subjects whether they may be in agony or in ecstasy. Try to empathise and enjoy with them, put them at ease to express their strength and vulnerabilities.

Will recreating yourselves to a better human being enhance your portraits? Think about it.


by Martin Zurmuhle

We all know outstanding photographs with a long lasting impact to the beholder. And we know even more similar photographs without such an effect. We can enjoy some photographs with great pleasure for years while others get boring after a shot time. What is the secret behind this magical effect of outstanding photographs? What secret do these photographs hide and what makes them effective and successful? To understand this and other question about the impact of photographs I developed a system of communication in photography. This system is called “Vier-Augen-Modell” in German. I have published three books about the magic of photography and the history behind outstanding photographs. I would like to explain for the first time my work in English in this journal.

Four-side model by Friedemann Schulz von Thun

To understand the communication with photographs it is important to understand the human communication. In my teacher training I got in contact with a simple but very useful communication model by Friedemann Schulz von Thun: the four-sides model (also known as communication square or four-ears model). According to this model every message has four facets though not the same emphasis might be put on each. The four sides of the message are factual information, self-revelation, relationship, and appeal.

The communication square describes the multi-layered structure of human utterance. This system of the human communication combines the postulate of Paul Watzlawick (every communication has a content and a relationship aspect), with the three sides of the Organon model by Karl Bühler (every information contains something about the matter, the sender and the receiver). Such models are well known in linguistic as models of the speech act.

The four sides of communication (communication square)

Schulz von Thun describes the communication square: “The matter layer contains statements which are matter of fact like data and facts, which are part of the news. In the self-revealing or self-disclosure the speaker – conscious or not intended – tells something about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc. In the Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along with the receiver and what he thinks of him. The Appeal contains the desire, advice, instruction and effects that the speaker is seeking for.”

Every layer can be misunderstood individually. Schulz von Thun explains this with a classic example: “The front-seat passenger tells the driver: “Hey, the traffic lights are green”. The driver will understand something different regarding to the ear with which he will hear and will react differently. (on the matter layer he will understand the “fact” “the traffic lights are green”, he could also understand it as “Come on, drive! .”-”command”, or on the “relationship” could hear a help like “I want to help you or if you hear behind it: I am in a hurry it reveals part of yourself “self-revelatory”).”

The main problem of communication is, that the emphasis on the four layers can be meant differently and also be understood differently. For example the sender can stress the appeal of the statement and the receiver can mainly receive the rela- tionship part of the message. This is one of the main reasons for misunderstandings. This model of communication helped me a lot to improve my own communication and solve many problems. It makes the communication more successful and prevents misunderstandings. It would be a great thing to have such a useful and simple to use model in photography in order to improve the communication between the photographer (as sender)

and the viewer (as receiver). But the communication with photographs is different from human communication. It is a one-way exchange of information. Normally the photographer has no direct connection to the viewer of his work. The four layers of the four-side model by Friedemann Schulz von Thun can’t be transferred without adaption into the world of photography. This is the starting point of my four-eyes model of communication in photography.

Four-eye model by Martin Zurmühle

According to this model every photograph has four facets though not the same emphasis might be put on each. The four “eyes” of the photographic message are: form-eye, story-eye, emotion-eye, and self-eye.

The four-eye model describes the multi-layered structure of visual utterance. This system of communication in photography interprets and transfers the communication square by Schulz von Thun into the world of photography and other fields of visual communication.

The four layers of communication in photography

The form-eye describes the classical use of graphical elements (like points, lines, curves, shapes, colours and more) in photography. These elements are the letters and words of the photographic language. Their arrangement or composition on the picture corresponds to the text of the photo- graphic language, which is universally understood. This aspect of photography is covered in width and depth in all classical photography teaching books (e.g. in the classics by Andreas

Feininger and Harald Mante, but also new publications by Michael Freeman, Martin Zurmühle and others). The rules are clear and understandable. Moreover, they can be logically classified and thus are based on hard facts. For this reason, the form-eye corresponds to the factual information layer in the communication square.

The story-eye describes the akin to travel and report photography. The pictures serve to give us an insight into worlds possibly unknown to us, the show special events and sometimes want to influence our opinion about a certain subject. Strong pictures can change both our worldview as well as the politics of a country (as seen in the Vietnam and Iraq wars).

While pictures can be completely neutral in the form-eye, pictures in the story-eye always take a stance on the event they depict. These photographs rely on easily recognisable connections, which are universally understood. These pictures get more powerful and impactful using clear shapes and goal-oriented layouts. Most of the time, we can still rationally analyse these photographs fairly well. Due to their influence on the observer, either consciously on unconsciously, the story-layer corresponds to the appeal-layer in the communication square.

With our emotion-eye, we can feel the atmosphere and emotions that are present in a picture. With a suitable photographic language, it is possible to stimulate other senses besides the visual sense by

nvoking memories of impactful moments in the observer’s life. With space and time symbols we can create a feeling for spatial depth and speed. With light and colours we can create a special mood in our photographs.

Due to different life experiences people react to these kind of pictures in a more individual fashion. Emotions present in the pictures can only be felt if they depict a feeling that is known to us. We thus are dealing with soft factors. In the photography of people, emotions can be expressed using body language. Since emotions can only be roughly described, their effects are usually not precisely covered in photography textbooks. The emotion-layer thus corresponds to the relationship-layer in the communication square.

Strong pictures don’t only have a strong message and appeal to our emotions, but they also tell us a lot about the photographer using the self-eye.The photographer can express himself through his pictures. The more intensive he identifies himself with his own visual language, the more his pictures tell the observer about his worldview. The choice of the theme is very important in this section.

While the photographer can tell very little about himself through architecture or landscape photography, he reveals much more about himself through nude, erotic or fetish photographs. However, we cannot only deduce the photographers view of the subject through his photographic language, the observer also reveals a lot about his own attitude towards it through his reaction. The more extreme the motive, the more polarizing are the reactions of the observers. This is also where the big and hard to grasp field of art begins, which the photographer uses to different ends as others who are just interested in producing artful photographs.

This section of art is very subjective and the messages sent are unclear. That is why most textbooks lack a precise instruction how to evaluate the quality of such pictures. The self-eye corresponds to the aspect of self-revelation in Schulz von Thun’s communication model.



by Thomas Jerger

I started working on flowers as a subject of photography just a few years ago. I had just left working on high risk information systems projects as a project manager due to health issues in my family and decided to spend time working on photogra- phy as my situation allowed.

I had not done any photographic work for decades. When last I produced images, dark rooms and bulk film loaders were requirements.

I secured a Nikon D7100 and a 55-300mm zoom lens, some software for post process, and a good printer… and I started off.

The Evolution to Flowers

I took pictures of everything. Hundreds of shots. Perhaps thousands. Some were okay. Most were not. My venues were limited as was my time.

I started posting what I thought were my better shots and got limited feedback that indicted that my work was average at best. Meanwhile, due to the health issues, we began to receive flowers.

Now, most of us like flowers, in a general way. They are, after all, pretty. I liked flowers as well, but never really thought of them much. They were just something we planted next to the vegetables and hoped would come up.

I started to really look at the flowers we were receiving. Some seemed cheerful, some sad, some formal, some even flippant. I started to take some shots of the bouquets. In the process, I realized that I never had really seen flowers before. They had been background.

I began to try taking photographs that showed these moods. The feedback to my posts began to improve. I invested in mac- ro lenses. I continued to take hundreds of shots. However, now more were okay and some were received very well.

I now use three different macro lenses (40mm, 85mm, and 105mm).

Soon I found that most of my subjects were flowers.

Why Flowers?

For me, first was availability. I live in Milwaukee, WI, an urban area, and have limited time. The Milwaukee metro area is filled with parks. This includes the Mitchell Park Horticul- tural Conservatory and the Boerner Botanical Garden. We have also established a small urban garden at our apartment complex.

Second, was my seeing messages in how flowers grew, posi- tioned, and varied with the light and seasons. The variation was tremendous.

Third on my list was that during the Winter and early Spring, I could still find flowers at the Mitchell Domes or simply buy some at the local grocery store.

Last, through my work with them, I became passionate about them.

Hints and Tips

I learned some lessons in this journey. Many of these are im- portant no matter what your subject.

Your Passion

Your best work may not be the most popular work.
The pieces I have been most passionate about have frequently not been the most popular. If you are posting your photographs, the ones with the most votes, likes, or favors, are not likely to be the ones you are happiest with. If you think popularity and quality are the same thing, just think about current trends and fads. Quality is not popularity.

Composition and Subject Isolation

Composition and subject isolation are important. Read up on composition. Isolation of the subject can be achieved by depth of field, background/foreground contrast, lighting, etc.

When shooting flowers, consider what your actual subject is. It frequently is not the flower itself. It is rather the aspects of the flower you want to emphasis. For me, it is often the emotion the flower embodies.

Bigger is not Necessarily Better

Much of this work is macro work. As such, it is easy to get initially overtaken by the novelty of magnified detail. I rapidly discovered that a magnified weakly composed shot was just that. Macro, for me, is a tool, not an objective.

The Message

I believe all good photography captures messages. When shooting or post processing, consider the message you are trying to convey. My best work is easy to title. That said, sometimes a bou- quet is a bouquet and an Autumn bloom is an Autumn bloom. However, I believe even these are trying to convey the experience of each.

I have enjoyed my journey with flowers and look forward to where it will lead next.


Emperor Penguin and Child by Christopher Michel


by Andre Karimloo

Nature is among the most important sources of inspiration known to humans. Creative instincts pour out of people from all walks of life when gazing at a natural beauty. When wildlife is present in the scene as well, the connection to the moment being witnessed becomes real. From birds drinking from a fountain in your local park, to a pack of elephants having a bath in a watering hole, each opportunity to enjoy and capture an animal doing what it does is a special one.

As a photographer, or photography enthusiast, the idea of setting out into nature and capturing wildlife can seem daunting. What gear do you pack? How should you dress? What do you need to know beforehand? These are normal questions, and with the pointers below you should be well on your way to exploring the natural world.

The Gear and Settings

Let’s start with the most important part of wildlife photography – the gear! Choosing the right things to take for your wildlife excursion is key. Multiple

ingly. Since animals can be unpredictable with their movements, it’s usually best to use the auto focus feature on your camera.

Research, Planning and Patience

Now that your gear is in order, it’s time to think about where to go shoot. You can find information on nature reserves and other locations where wildlife can be found on the internet on a multitude of sites. You’ll be able to find out what reserves are near you and what wildlife you can expect to see. If you want to photograph more exotic creatures pay a visit to a zoo where there will be plenty of opportunities to shoot wildlife shots. Petting zoos/children’s farms and butterfly houses are two more locations where you’ll be able to get close to your subjects. Many animals are more active during the morning or late afternoon while around noon, particularly if it’s a warm day, they tend to go to sleep so keep this in mind when you’re planning your day. There’s a whole host of things that you should take into account once you have settled on a location. First off, where should you park your

factors can determine what lens and cameras you need to carry with you. So, it’s important to know exactly what kind of shots you want to take beforehand. Typically, a DSLR with interchangeable lenses is your best bet. Especially if most of your daily travel will be by foot. If you are going to travel to different locations by car, then you can take multiple cameras, each with a different lens to vary the type of shots you take. Suggested lenses to take are a standard kit lens (18-55mm,) a longer zoom lens (200-300mm,) and a wide-angle lens if you want to take shots of landscapes.

A lightweight tripod, monopod or camera bean bag can be very necessary in some situations where camera stillness is essential. Make sure to also take lens hoods to protect shots from excess light, a couple batteries, and memory cards with enough space for all your photos. Also, invest in a good, lightweight camera backpack. This is an understated element of gear, so do your research to find the right one for you. Depending on where you plan to go, the gear you take can vary, so plan accordingly.

Always shoot your photos in Raw format. The higher quality will enable you to capture details not otherwise possible with other forms of storage. Set your camera to the lowest possible ISO given the situation you’re in. This will limit the amount of noise in the photo, just be aware to set the aperture accord-

vehicle? Leaving your car in unauthorized areas can result in hefty fines or the towing of your car, so make sure to be cautious. If visiting a national park or reserve, there can be special permits needed to enter certain areas, so make sure to ask before going. Things like what the weather will be like, and at what time sunrise and sunset will be can seem like no-brainer questions, but they can easily be overlooked. Make sure to know what the conditions will be like during your stay, to ensure the best quality photos.

In wildlife photography, patience is the ultimate virtue. When it comes to nature reserves, you can go one day and end up with nothing and return a few days later to find the water’s brimming with wildlife. The same can be said for zoos too, a really busy day can mean you’re fighting to get close to the animals and end up with hardly any shots or the animals may all be hiding inside. Of course, you can’t control this so you just have to keep your fingers-crossed and try another day if you’re unsuccessful. Getting your camera out too quickly can startle the animal you’re photographing too and they can decide not to return for some time. So, to stop this happening, get your gear out and just watch until they’re used to you then take your shots. Try and not appear too threatening and don’t make any sudden movements.



have any excuse for not taking the shot I wanted. I want to only blame myself in case a shot was messed up and not the fact that I did not have my 120mm that would have been prefect for it. I travel with a great deal of equipment which brings its own issues, especially that I do not want to check it on flights. It is also very heavy and cumbersome to constantly pack and unpack.

NID: Which is your favorite lens? Why?
AD: I do not think I have a favorite lens because it depends on what I am trying to shoot. There are some great allrounder lenses such as the Canon 70-200mm 2.8 II L. Now that I am shooting on a Phase One, I am staggered at the quality of the Schneider Lenses. The tack sharpness from edge to edge is something to be seen, especially when used with a 100MP sensor. I love the 35mm for its wide angle capabilities, however if I had to choose one that I loved, it would have to be the 120mm macro. On a recent trip to India, it was very versatile for any closeups as well as a wonderful portrait lens. A quick flick of the button on the side of the lens, it changes characteristics and focus range.

NID: Among the gadgets that you own, is there something that you wish you hadn’t bought? Why?
AD: I tend to do a great deal of research before I buy something to avoid this very regret, so I do not think I have many items I do not use on a regular basis. I would say one item I do not use a great deal was a Canon

Getting To Know Andrei Duman

NID: Can you please tell us a little about yourself?
AD: My name is Andrei Duman and I am a travel, landscape and aerial photographer based in Los Angeles, California. Born in Bucharest, Romania I was raised in England, and received a Masters of Science in Finance and Investment from the University of York. I then moved to New York for several years before settling in Los Angeles, where I currently live with my wife, Susan, and our beloved Bengal cats Foo and Smash.

The Photography Journey

NID: When did your photography journey begin?
AD: I have always loved photography and was fascinated with the concept of freezing a moment in time. I was a semi-pro- fessional tennis player and travelled a great deal with that, so it allowed me the opportunity to see and experience some pretty amazing locations. I wanted to capture that as much as I could and always carried a camera with me. It was only a point and shoot with a whopping 3.2MP sensor. As time went on, I kept adding to my photography equipment, such as better tripod, lenses and cameras. Once you get the bug it is hard to stop.

NID: When did you start taking photography more seriously?
AD: I started getting really serious with my photography in my mid-twenties. By that point I was working in investment banking and as an industry rule, we had to take a two week vacation. This allowed my curiosity for the further reaches of the world to take shape. I travelled to Vietnam, Cambodia, Palau, Namibia and Easter Island to name a few. The equip- ment also got a great deal more complex and heavier.

NID: Why do you really take photos? Is it more for yourself or for others?
AD: Many photographers have a pre-set answer to this question and they all sound the same to me. I take photos for myself. I want to capture something that I can look back on to remind myself of my experiences. It was only around two years ago that anyone other than my wife actually saw my images in their entirety. I did not want to share them because, for me, it was always a personal project. I also did not have the confidence to show them before in case they weren’t accepted by my peers. A few years down the road, I now want to take images that evoke an emotion and create a personal connection with someone. I think that’s what’s really amaz- ing about art as a form of expression. It can speak to so many people in so many ways and an image that reaches out to one person may mean nothing to another.

About The Gear

NID: What kind of gear do you use?
AD: For most of my career, I was shooting on a Canon with pretty much all the variants of the 5D range. I also had 5 L lenses. In November I began shooting for Phase One as one of their preferred photographers. I exclusively shoot on their flagship 100MP XF iQ3 with multiple Schneider lenses such as the 35mm, 40-80mm, 120mm macro, 150mm and 240mm. I use a Gitzo Systematic tripod with a Systematic 5 Series Head, Lowepro Pro Trekker 450AW backpack and multiple G-Drive external hard drives. Additionally, I use multiple Singh-Ray filters such as Polarizers and Neutral Density (10 Stop and 15 Stop).

NID: When you go on one of your travels, what do you take with? Why?
AD: I tend to take all my gear with me and the reason is I do not want to

GPS tracker that attached to the hot shoe. Given the many locations I visit on a yearly basis, I thought it would be a good idea to capture the location of each shot. It sounds great in theory, however I found it not so in practice. It is hard to extract the data and even when you do, there is not a great deal you can do with it. I had this idea that I could use this as a tag for each image on my website, however it is difficult to show it in a way that is intuitive and informative. It also takes AA batteries and they do drain quite quickly, so it ended up being a gadget I do not carry too much with me. Now that I am using a Phase One, I cannot even use it.


NID: Whose work has influenced you most? Who are some of your favorite classic photographers, and how did they influence you?
AD: There are very few photographers who I admire a great deal and that is not because I do not think there are great photographers out there. There are some amazing artists who produce beautiful work every day. I am looking for artists who have a wide range of subjects and locations. Steven Curry and Art Wolfe are two photographers I admire a great deal and in-spire me. They help push me to keep trying new techniques and visit new and unique places. I also love the work of Michael Levin who uses ND filters to fantastic effect.

NID: What are some of your favorite books on landscape and fine art photography – and what about them do you love?
AD: I do not actually read photography books. Everything I have ever learned has been out in the field making mistakes and learning from them.

NID: How does black and white vs color play into your work? Do you find them to be totally separate beasts—or complementary?
AD: I think black and white photography is one of the most difficult to execute. Due to the lack of color, I feel it is much harder to make a connection with a viewer because it does not have the color pop that many people like and relate to. That being said, if done correctly and the subject is interesting enough, I think it can lead to some of the most powerful images. Given the locations I travel to, which are more off the beaten path, I love to show people what I am seeing at the time I shot the image. So for me, I prefer to shoot in color. Additionally the subjects that

attract me have a great deal of color, such as salt flats, sand dunes and colorful markets. I am in a slow transition period whereby I am trying to think more about composing black and white images. I happen to have a black and white only Phase One 60MP back that I used on my last trips. It is still a work in progress and I will present those images when I finally feel I have captured something that truly works in black and white.

NID: What do you think are some clichés in photography you steer away from yourself?
AD: Photography is such an expressive art form and the beauty of that is everyone can experiment in shooting whatev- er they want in whatever way they want. It is both unfair and hard for me to tell someone not to do something because it is so personal and individual. There are some things I steer away from and frankly it is more to do with my post production rather than actually shooting. I try to avoid over saturated colors, exaggerating making changes to an original image, such as moving things within it and playing too much with high dynamic range. I feel they take away from the true image. If you have to work very hard to make an image work, maybe one has to accept the image was not worth working on. Possibly the light was not right, time of day, wrong composition. If feasible, it may be best to go back another day and reshoot.

Let’s Talk Shop

NID: In the field, what are your most used camera settings?
AD: After many hours of training on how to use the Phase One and the new Schneider lenses, I try to keep my aperture at f/11 as much as possible and my ISO as low as possible (ISO 50). I always shoot RAW and in manual mode.

if they took a few minutes to look up from their camera, they could see a different angle that they would otherwise miss.

NID: Among your works, which one is your favorite? Why?
AD: I am very critical of my work with only a few images that I am truly happy with. The one that does stand out is the resting lion image I took in Kenya. It is of a lioness that I managed to photograph after she made a kill and was resting in the tree. I was lucky enough to frame her looking right at the camera in a very relaxed, almost exhausted pose. It is a

if they took a few minutes to look up from their camera, they could see a different angle that they would otherwise miss.

NID: Among your works, which one is your favorite? Why?
AD: I am very critical of my work with only a few images that I am truly

Most of the time I keep my white balance in Auto and make any changes in post.

NID: What kind of tools do you use for post processing? Explain your workflow. Do you prefer Photoshop or Lightroom? Or maybe some other software?

AD: I pull all my images in Capture One and make my ini- tial changes in contrast, lifting shadows, color correction etc there. I then export the files in TIFF form to Photoshop and make any additional changes using luminosity masks. When I am happy with the final image, I save as a master file and also save for web after additional sharpening.

NID: How has social media played a role in your photography?
AD: Social Media is a crucial factor in today’s society. The photography world is inundated with amazing artists who have amazing work. With the huge increase in DSLR sales and online communities, it is that much harder to stand out with your own work. The world has become smaller in many ways and the same locations get shot a great deal. Having a solid online presence and trying to show something different to distinguish you from others is easier said than done. It is an ever evolving platform with new concepts and staying on top of the trend will ensure you may be seen before others. I try my hardest to bring along my followers on any journey that I may be on, or to show them something new and unique.

NID: When you are out shooting — how much of it is instinc- tual versus planned?

AD: When I plan a trip, I always have a final few images in my mind that I want to achieve. They don’t always pan out, for many reasons such as weather, social/political factors and a section of a shoot may be closed for renovation. This is where the instinctual aspect comes in because it is the images you take that are not planned that most of the time work out to be the best. I prefer them because they are unexpected and unplanned. You never know what you will find when you get to a location. This is where your understanding of your equipment and experience with composition kicks in to help you adapt to what the current location is.

NID: What is the one thing you wish you knew when you started taking photos?
AD: That is a hard question to answer because to me photography is all about learning and evolving. There will always be something that you could do better or a new piece of equipment you need to learn. If I could go back to when I was younger, I would probably tell myself to slow down and work more on my composition. Find the essence of the frame, think more of what I am trying to convey to the viewer. I would also tell myself to not look as much through the viewfinder and actually look around and take the location in. I think many photographers are so eager to keep shooting that


happy with. The one that does stand out is the resting lion image I took in Kenya. It is of a lioness that I managed to photograph after she made a kill and was resting in the tree. I was lucky enough to frame her looking right at the camera in a very relaxed, almost exhausted pose. It is a gallery favorite because it is quite unique to catch them in trees. Lions usually remain at the base of shrubs and trees to relax.

NID: What projects/ideas you have going on now?
AD: I just returned from Hong Kong, Bali, India and Sri Lanka and have quite a lot of material to go through. I am also off to Cuba in a week with Phase One. I have also just wrapped up a studio shoot for an established R&B artist. He asked me to shoot his debut album cover and the concept I devised was quite unique, having gotten my inspiration from the Holy festival I attended in India. Additionally, I just completed a personal project involving going around LA and capturing the abstract section of the wonderful murals that surround the city. All of these can be found on my website AndreiDuman.com.

Tips For Our Readers

NID: How do you educate yourself to take better pictures?

AD: I am a forever student of the world we live in, the customs and traditions of the people and have a constant thirst for learning as much as I can. Learning your equipment and what new advances can do to help your craft is crucial in helping you achieve a different look to something familiar. I think everyone should have a continuous yearning to find out something new and push them- selves to travel more off the beaten path.

NID: What are your thoughts and feelings about shooting individually (versus shooting with a friend or small group of friends)?
AD: I prefer to shoot alone because it is on my own time and it provides me the freedom to adapt to situations as they arise. I can be worry-free in focusing on my shots without having to worry the whole group has to move, or someone is hungry etc. I like being in control of my time because I am at the mer- cy of what I find in the field. There are locations that do not work given what I see, and others where I feel the need to stay till the light is just right. I certainly do not want to miss a shot because of someone else. Additionally, you have to be careful of the etiquette that goes with shooting in a group, such as being in someone else’s frame, moving to make sure you don’t lock tripod legs, etc.

NID: What do you want your viewers to take away from your work?
AD: I would like for my viewers to come away after seeing my work inspired to expand their travel destinations. I think a lot of people are not prepared to explore some parts of the world and go off the beaten path. I am trying to show them the beauty that is around us if you are pre- pared to go seek it out. I also want people to see my work as true to the location, to know I haven’t over exaggerated the colors or other sections of the image. I want them to see it and know that this is what it real- ly looked like in real life. That is crucial to me.

NID: What is one question nobody has ever asked you—that you wish they did?

AD: I wish someone would ask me what regrets I have doing photography and also what is the worst part of being a travel photographer.  Thank you very much for your time and for the wonderful images you capture. Keep up with this amazing adventure.

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